Types and Components of the Computer System

Types and Components of the Computer System

Technology has changed our lives and the lifestyle. Desktop computer in offices to wearable gadgets like smart watches and even the smart washing machine, we can see the role of microprocessor controlled devices. Irrespective of the size and power of the computing device some functionality such as input-process-output cycle are common in all the computer devices.

Here I will be discussing about the main components of a general computer system, the different type of the computers and impact of emerging technologies on our lives.

Computer systems are made up of hardware and software components.

Hardware components can be further divided into internal hardware and external hardware. This blog and the video lectures are as per the IGCSE ICT syllabus 2020.


Hardware are physical components of a computer system. There are internal and external hardware components.

The following are internal hardware components of general computer system:

Mother board
Sound Card
Video Card
Internal Storage Devices

Internal Hardware devices mind map
Internal Hardware Devices Mind Map


Softwares are set of programs or instructions. Softwares are of two kinds:

Application Softwares; which allow the user to perform certain tasks.
The examples of application softwares are word processor, spreadsheet, video, image editing software etc.

System Softwares; which allow the hardware devices to run properly and allow the user to communicate with the computer system. The examples of system softwares are compiler, linker, device drivers and utilities.

Types and Components of Computer System: Internal Hardware and Application Software

The Operating System

It is system software which performs various tasks like memory and process management, security and maintenance etc.

There are two kinds of user interfaces:

Command line Interface

User Interface: CLI
Command Line Interface

Graphical User Interface

GUI (Window Icon Menu Pointer: WIMP Interface)
GUI (Window Icon Menu Pointer: WIMP Interface)

Here is an easy to remember comparison between the command line interface and the graphical user interface.

User Interfaces: CLI versus GUI
Comparision of the user interfaces: CLI and GUI
IGCSE ICT Types and Components of the Computer System part 2

Types of Computers

There are various computer systems used for different purposes, like for individual use, fitness and monitoring, industrial use.

Desktop computer, laptops, Smartphone, smart watches are some commonly used types of computers.

Advantages and disadvantages of desktop computer
Desktop Computer’s Advantages and Disadvantages Mind Map

Impact of Emerging technologies

Technology is developing everyday and making our lives simpler. These emerging technologies have various areas of applications such as entertainment, training and learning, army, security.

Watch the full video to know more about the impacts of the emerging technologies.

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